history of amul
31-05-2011, 02:30 PM
history of amul
This article is about the Indian dairy cooperative. For the ancient city of Āmul along the Oxus, see Türkmenabat. For the city in Iran, see Amol.
Amul (ANAND MILK UNION LIMITED)
Headquarters Anand, India
Key people Chairman, Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Limited. (KDCMPUL)
Products See complete products listing.
Revenue INR (Indian Rupee) 67.11 billion, $1.33 billion USD (in 2008-09)
Employees 735 employees of Marketing Arm. However, real pool consist of 2.8 million milk producers
The Amul Plant at Anand featuring the Milk Silos
Amul ("priceless" in Sanskrit. The brand name "Amul," from the Sanskrit "Amoolya," (meaning Precious) was suggested by a quality control expert in Anand.), formed in 1946, is a dairy cooperative in India. It is a brand name managed by an apex cooperative organisation, Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. (GCMMF), which today is jointly owned by some 2.8 million milk producers in Gujarat, India.
Amul is based in Anand, Gujarat and has been an example of a co-operative organization's success in the long term. "Anyone who has seen … the dairy cooperatives in the state of Gujarat, especially the highly successful one known as AMUL, will naturally wonder what combination of influences and incentives is needed to multiply such a model a thousand times over in developing regions everywhere." The Amul Pattern has established itself as a uniquely appropriate model for rural development. Amul has spurred the White Revolution of India, which has made India the largest producer of milk and milk products in the world. It is also the world's biggest vegetarian cheese brand .
Amul is the largest food brand in India and world's Largest Pouched Milk Brand with an annual turnover of US $1700 million (2009–10). Currently Unions making up GCMMF have 2.9 million producer members with milk collection average of 9.10 million litres per day. Besides India, Amul has entered overseas markets such as Mauritius, UAE, USA, Bangladesh, Australia, China, Singapore, Hong Kong and a few South African countries. Its bid to enter Japanese market in 1994 did not succeed, but now it has fresh plans entering the Japanese markets. Other potential markets being considered include Sri Lanka.
Dr Verghese Kurien, former chairman of the GCMMF, is recognised as a key person behind the success of Amul. On 10 Aug 2006 Parthi Bhatol, chairman of the Banaskantha Union, was elected chairman of GCMMF.
500 gram pack of Amul Cheese
100 gram pack of Amul Butter
2 GCMMF Today
3 Company info
4 The Three-tier "Amul Model"
5 Impact of the "Amul Model"
6 Achievements of the "Amul Movement"
7 Achievements of GCMMF
7.1 Amul Brand Building
11 In popular culture
13 External links
The india District Co-operative Milk Producers' Union was registered on December 14, 1946 as a response to exploitation of marginal milk producers by traders or agents of existing dairies in the small town named Anand (in Kaira District of Gujarat). Milk Producers had to travel long distances to deliver milk to the only dairy, the Polson Dairy in Anand. Often milk went sour as producers had to physically carry the milk in individual containers, especially in the summer season. These agents arbitrarily decided the prices depending on the production and the season. Milk is a commodity that has to be collected twice a day from each cow/buffalo. In winter, the producer was either left with surplus / unsold milk or had to sell it at very low prices. Moreover, the government at that time had given monopoly rights to Polson Dairy (around that time Polson was the most well known butter brand in the country) to collect milk from Anand and supply it to Bombay city in turn. India ranked nowhere amongst milk producing countries in the world because of its limitations in 1946 British Raj.
Angered by the unfair and manipulative trade practices, the farmers of Kaira District approached Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (who later became the first Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister of free India) under the leadership of the local farmer leader Tribhuvandas Patel. Sardar Patel advised the farmers to form a Cooperative and supply milk directly to the Bombay Milk Scheme instead of selling it to Polson (who did the same but gave low prices to the producers). He sent Morarji Desai (who later became Prime Minister of India) to organize the farmers. In 1946, the farmers of the area went on a milk strike refusing to be further oppressed. Thus the Kaira District Cooperative was established to collect and process milk in the District of Kaira in 1946. Milk collection was also decentralized, as most producers were marginal farmers who were in a position to deliver 1-2 litres of milk per day. Village level cooperatives were established to organize the marginal milk producers in each of these villages.
The Cooperative was further developed and managed by Dr. V Kurien along with Shri H M Dalaya. The first modern dairy of the Kaira Union was established at Anand. Indigenous research and development and technology development at the Cooperative had led to the successful production of skimmed milk powder from buffalo milk – the first time on a commercial scale anywhere in the world.
The success of the dairy co-operative movement spread rapidly in Gujarat. Within a short span five other district unions – Mehsana, Banaskantha, Baroda, Sabarkantha and Surat were organized. In order to combine forces and expand the market while saving on advertising and avoid a situation where milk cooperatives would compete against each other it was decided to set up an apex marketing body of dairy cooperative unions in Gujarat. Thus, in 1973, the Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation was established. The Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd. which had established the brand name Amul in 1955 decided to hand over the brand name to GCMMF (AMUL).
Dr. Verghese Kurien, the World Food Prize and the Magsaysay Award winner, was the architect of India’s White Revolution, which helped India emerge as the largest milk producer in the world.
Impressed with the development of dairy cooperatives in Kaira District and its success, Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Prime Minister of India during his visit to Anand in 1964, asked Dr. V Kurien to replicate the Anand type dairy cooperatives all over India. Thus, the National Dairy Developed Board was formed and Operation Flood Programme was launched for replication of the Amul Model all over India.
GCMMF is India's largest food products marketing organisation.. It is a state level apex body of milk cooperatives in Gujarat, which aims to provide remunerative returns to the farmers and also serve the interest of consumers by providing affordable quality products. GCMMF markets and manages the Amul brand. From mid-1990s Amul has entered areas not related directly to its core business. Its entry into ice cream was regarded as successful due to the large market share it was able to capture within a short period of time – primarily due to the price differential and the brand name. It also entered the pizza business, where the base and the recipes were made available to restaurant owners who could price it as low as 30 rupees per pizza when the other players were charging upwards of 100 rupees.
The Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd, Anand (GCMMF) is the largest food products marketing organisation of India. It is the apex organization of the Dairy Cooperatives of Gujarat. This State has been a pioneer in organizing dairy cooperatives and our success has not only been emulated in India but serves as a model for rest of the World. Over the last five and a half decades, Dairy Cooperatives in Gujarat have created an economic network that links more than 2.8 million village milk producers with millions of consumers in India and abroad through a cooperative system that includes 13,141 Village Dairy Cooperative Societies (VDCS) at the village level, affiliated to 13 District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Unions at the District level and GCMMF at the State level. These cooperatives collect on an average 7.5 million litres of milk per day from their producer members, more than 70% of whom are small, marginal farmers and landless labourers and include a sizeable population of tribal folk and people belonging to the scheduled castes.
The turnover of GCMMF (AMUL) during 2008-09 was Rs. 67.11 billion. It markets the products, produced by the district milk unions in 30 dairy plants, under the renowned AMUL brand name. The combined processing capacity of these plants is 11.6 million litres per day, with four dairy plants having processing capacity in excess of 1 million Litres per day. The farmers of Gujarat own the largest state of the art dairy plant in Asia – Mother Dairy, Gandhinagar, Gujarat – which can handle 2.5 million litres of milk per day and process 100 MTs of milk powder daily. During the last year, 3.1 billion litres of milk was collected by Member Unions of GCMMF. Huge capacities for milk drying, product manufacture and cattle feed manufacture have been installed. All its products are manufactured under the most hygienic conditions. All dairy plants of the unions are ISO 9001-2000, ISO 22000 and HACCP certified. GCMMF (AMUL)’s Total Quality Management ensures the quality of products right from the starting point (milk producer) through the value chain until it reaches the consumer.
Ever since the movement was launched fifty-five years ago, Gujarat’s Dairy Cooperatives have brought about a significant social and economic change to our rural people. The Dairy Cooperatives have helped in ending the exploitation of farmers and demonstrated that when our rural producers benefit, the community and nation benefits as well.
The Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. cannot be viewed simply as a business enterprise. It is an institution created by the milk producers themselves to primarily safeguard their interest economically, socially as well as democratically. Business houses create profit in order to distribute it to the shareholders. In the case of GCMMF the surplus is ploughed back to farmers through the District Unions as well as the village societies. This circulation of capital with value addition within the structure not only benefits the final beneficiary – the farmer – but eventually contributes to the development of the village community. This is the most significant contribution the Amul Model cooperatives has made in building the Nation.
The Three-tier "Amul Model"
The Amul Model is a three-tier cooperative structure. This structure consists of a Dairy Cooperative Society at the village level affiliated to a Milk Union at the District level which in turn is further federated into a Milk Federation at the State level. The above three-tier structure was set up in order to delegate the various functions, milk collection is done at the Village Dairy Society, Milk Procurement & Processing at the District Milk Union and Milk & Milk Products Marketing at the State Milk Federation. This helps in eliminating not only internal competition but also ensuring that economies of scale is achieved. As the above structure was first evolved at Amul in Gujarat and thereafter replicated all over the country under the Operation Flood Programme, it is known as the ‘Amul Model’ or ‘Anand Pattern’ of Dairy Cooperatives.
Responsible for Marketing of Milk & Milk Products Responsible for Procurement & Processing of Milk Responsible for Collection of Milk Responsible for Milk Production
3.1 Village Dairy Cooperative Society (VDCS)
The milk producers of a village, having surplus milk after own consumption, come together and form a Village Dairy Cooperative Society (VDCS). The Village Dairy Cooperative is the primary society under the three-tier structure. It has membership of milk producers of the village and is governed by an elected Management Committee consisting of 9 to 12 elected representatives of the milk producers based on the principle of one member, one vote. The village society further appoints a Secretary (a paid employee and member secretary of the Management Committee) for management of the day-to-day functions. It also employs various people for assisting the Secretary in accomplishing his / her daily duties. The main functions of the VDCS are as follows:
Collection of surplus milk from the milk producers of the village & payment based on quality & quantity
Providing support services to the members like Veterinary First Aid, Artificial Insemination services, cattle-feed sales, mineral mixture sales, fodder & fodder seed sales, conducting training on Animal Husbandry & Dairying, etc.
Selling liquid milk for local consumers of the village
Supplying milk to the District Milk Union
Thus, the VDCS in an independent entity managed locally by the milk producers and assisted by the District Milk Union.
3.2 District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union (Milk Union)
The Village Societies of a District (ranging from 75 to 1653 per Milk Union in Gujarat) having surplus milk after local sales come together and form a District Milk Union. The Milk Union is the second tier under the three-tier structure. It has membership of Village Dairy Societies of the District and is governed by a Board of Directors consisting of 9 to 18 elected representatives of the Village Societies. The Milk Union further appoints a professional Managing Director (paid employee and member secretary of the Board) for management of the day-to-day functions. It also employs various people for assisting the Managing Director in accomplishing his / her daily duties. The main functions of the Milk Union are as follows:
Procurement of milk from the Village Dairy Societies of the District
Arranging transportation of raw milk from the VDCS to the Milk Union.
Providing input services to the producers like Veterinary Care, Artificial Insemination services, cattle-feed sales, mineral mixture sales, fodder & fodder seed sales, etc.
Conducting training on Cooperative Development, Animal Husbandry & Dairying for milk producers and conducting specialised skill development & Leadership Development training for VDCS staff & Management Committee members.
Providing management support to the VDCS along with regular supervision of its activities.
Establish Chilling Centres & Dairy Plants for processing the milk received from the villages.
Selling liquid milk & milk products within the District
Process milk into various milk & milk products as per the requirement of State Marketing Federation.
Decide on the prices of milk to be paid to milk producers as well on the prices of support services provided to members.
3.3 State Cooperative Milk Federation (Federation)
The Milk Unions of a State are federated into a State Cooperative Milk Federation. The Federation is the apex tier under the three-tier structure. It has membership of all the cooperative Milk Unions of the State and is governed by a Board of Directors consisting of one elected representative of each Milk Union. The State Federation further appoints a Managing Director (paid employee and member secretary of the Board) for management of the day-to-day functions. It also employs various people for assisting the Managing Director in accomplishing his daily duties. The main functions of the Federation are as follows:
Marketing of milk & milk products processed / manufactured by Milk Unions.
Establish distribution network for marketing of milk & milk products.
Arranging transportation of milk & milk products from the Milk Unions to the market.
Creating & maintaining a brand for marketing of milk & milk products (brand building).
Providing support services to the Milk Unions & members like Technical Inputs, management support & advisory services.
Pooling surplus milk from the Milk Unions and supplying it to deficit Milk Unions.
Establish feeder-balancing Dairy Plants for processing the surplus milk of the Milk Unions.
Arranging for common purchase of raw materials used in manufacture / packaging of milk products.
Decide on the prices of milk & milk products to be paid to Milk Unions.
Decide on the products to be manufactured at various Milk Unions (product-mix) and capacity required for the same.
Conduct long-term Milk Production, Procurement & Processing as well as Marketing Planning.
Arranging Finance for the Milk Unions and providing them technical know-how.
Designing & Providing training on Cooperative Development, Technical & Marketing functions.
Conflict Resolution & keeping the entire structure intact.
We[who?] move to the year 2008. The dairy industry in India and particularly in the State of Gujarat looks very different. India for one has emerged as the largest milk producing country in the World. Gujarat has emerged as the most successful State in terms of milk and milk product production through its cooperative dairy movement. The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Limited, Anand has become the focal point of dairy development in the entire region and AMUL has emerged as one of the most recognized brands in India, ahead of many international brands.
Today, we have around 176 cooperative dairy Unions formed by 1,25,000[quantify] dairy cooperative societies having a total membership of around 13 million farmers on the same pattern, who are processing and marketing milk and milk products profitably, be it Amul in Gujarat or Verka in Punjab, Vijaya in Andhra Pradesh or a Nandini in Karnataka. This entire process has created more than 190 dairy processing plants spread all over India with large investments by these farmers’ institutions. These cooperatives today collect approximately 23 million kgs. of milk per day and pay an aggregate amount of more than Rs.125 billion to the milk producers in a year.
Impact of the "Amul Model"
The effects of Operation Flood Programme are more appraised by the World Bank in its recent evaluation report. It has been proved that an investment of Rs. 20 billion over 20 years under Operation Flood Programme in 70s & 80s has contributed in increase of India’s milk production by 40 Million Metric Tonne (MMT) i.e. from about 20 MMT in pre- Operation Flood period to more than 60 MMT at the end of Operation flood Programme. Thus, an incremental return of Rs. 400 billion annually have been generated by an investment of Rs. 20 billion over a period of 20 years. This has been the most beneficial project funded by the World Bank anywhere in the World. One can continue to see the effect of these efforts as India’s milk production continues to increase and now stands at 90 MMT. Despite this fourfold increase in milk production, there has not been drop in the prices of milk during the period and has continued to grow.
Due to this movement, the country’s milk production tripled between the years 1971 to 1996. Similarly, the per capita milk consumption doubled from 111 gms per day in 1973 to 222 gms per day in 2000. Thus, these cooperatives have not just been instrumental in economic development of the rural society of India but it also has provided vital ingredient for improving health & nutritional requirement of the Indian society. Very few industries of India have such parallels of development encompassing such a large population.
These dairy cooperatives have been responsible in uplifting the social & economic status of the women folk in particular as women are basically involved in dairying while the men are busy with their agriculture. This has also provided a definite source of income to the women leading to their economic emancipation.
The three-tier ‘Amul Model’ has been instrumental in bringing about the White Revolution in the country. As per the assessment report of the World Bank on the Impact of Dairy Development in India, the ‘Anand Pattern’ has demonstrated the following benefits:
The role of dairying in poverty reduction
The fact that rural development involves more than agricultural production
The value of national ‘ownership’ in development
The beneficial effects of higher incomes in relieving the worst aspects of poverty
The capacity of dairying to create jobs
The capacity of dairying to benefit the poor at low cost
The importance of commercial approach to development
The capacity of single-commodity projects to have multi-dimensional impacts
The importance of getting government out of commercial enterprises
The importance of market failure in agriculture
The power & problems of participatory organisations
The importance of policy
Achievements of the "Amul Movement"
The phenomenal growth of milk production in India – from 20 million MT to 100 million MT in a span of just 40 years – has been made possible only because of the dairy cooperative movement. This has propelled India to emerge as the largest milk producing country in the World today.
The dairy cooperative movement has also encouraged Indian dairy farmers to keep more animals, which has resulted in the 500 million cattle & buffalo population in the country – the largest in the World.
The dairy cooperative movement has garnered a large base of milk producers, with their membership today boasting of more than 13 million member families.
The dairy cooperative movement has spread across the length and breadth of the country, covering more than 125,000 villages of 180 Districts in 22 States.
The dairy cooperatives have been able to maintain democratic structure at least at the grass-root level with the management committee of the village level unit elected from among the members in majority of the villages.
The dairy cooperatives have also been instrumental in bridging the social divide of caste, creed, race, religion & language at the villages, by offering open and voluntary membership.
The dairy cooperatives have been successfully propagating the concepts of scientific animal husbandry & efficiency of operations, which has resulted in low cost of production & processing of milk.
The movement has been successful because of a well-developed procurement system & supportive federal structures at District & State levels.
Dairy Cooperatives have always been proactive in building large processing capacities, which has further propelled growth of milk production.
The dairy cooperatives are among those few institutions in India, which still cherish a strong Cooperative identity, values and purpose. They still boast of idealism & good will of members and employees.
The dairy cooperatives have removed the poor farmers of India from the shackles of agents & middlemen and provided an assured market for their produce. As these are the institutions run by farmers themselves, it has also resulted in fair returns to the members for their produce
Dairy cooperatives have been able to create a market perception of honesty & transparency with their clean management
Achievements of GCMMF
2.8 million milk producer member families
13,759 village societies
13 District Unions
8.5 million liters of milk procured per day
Rs. 150 million disbursed in cash daily
GCMMF is the largest cooperative business of small producers with an annual turnover of Rs. 53 billion
The Govt. of India has honoured Amul with the “Best of all categories Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award”.
Largest milk handling capacity in Asia
Largest Cold Chain Network
48 Sales offices, 3000 Wholesale Distributors, 5 lakh retail outlets
Export to 37 countries worth Rs. 150 crores
Winner of APEDA award for nine consecutive years
Amul Brand Building
GCMMF (AMUL) has the largest distribution network for any FMCG company. It has nearly 50 sales offices spread all over the country, more than 3,000 wholesale dealers and more than 5,00,000 retailers.
AMUL is also the largest exporter of dairy products in the country. AMUL is available today in over 40 countries of the world. AMUL is exporting a wide variety of products which include Whole and Skimmed Milk Powder, Cottage Cheese (Paneer), UHT Milk, Clarified Butter (Ghee) and Indigenous Sweets. The major markets are USA, West Indies, and countries in Africa, the Gulf Region, and [SAARC] SAARCneighbours, Singapore, The Philippines, Thailand, Japan and China.
In September 2007, Amul emerged as the leading Indian brand according to a survey by Synovate to find out Asia's top 1000 Brands.
In 2011, Amul was named the Most Trusted brand in the Food and Beverages sector in The Brand Trust Report, published by Trust Research Advisory.
Amul's product range includes milk powders, milk, butter, ghee, cheese, Masti Dahi, Yoghurt, Buttermilk chocolate, ice cream, cream, shrikhand, paneer, gulab jamuns, flavoured milk, basundi, Nutramul brand and others. In January 2006, Amul plans to launch India's first sports drink Stamina, which will be competing with Coca Cola's Powerade and PepsiCo's Gatorade.
In August 2007, Amul introduced Kool Koko, a chocolate milk brand extending its product offering in the milk products segment. Other Amul brands are Amul Kool, a low calorie thirst quenching drink; Masti Butter Milk; Kool Cafe, ready to drink coffee and India's first sports drink Stamina.
Amul's sugar-free Pro-Biotic Ice-cream won The International Dairy Federation Marketing Award for 2007.
Since 1967 Amul products' mascot has been the very recognisable "Amul baby" (a chubby butter girl usually dressed in polka dotted dress) showing up on hoardings and product wrappers with the equally recognisable tagline Utterly Butterly Delicious Amul.The mascot was first used for Amul butter. But in recent years in a second wave of ad campaign for Amul products, she has also been used for other product like ghee and milk.
An Amul butter ad on Pakistan's Kargil War fiasco. The image shows the "Amul baby" in between George Fernandes and Atal Behari Vajpayee.
In 1966, Amul hired Sylvester daCunha, then managing director of the advertising agency AS to design a new ad campaign for Amul Butter. daCunha designed an add campaign as series of hoardings with topical ads, relating to day-to-day issues. The campaign was widely popular and earned a Guiness world record for the longest running ad campaign in the world. Since the 1980s, cartoon artist Bharat Dabholkar has been involved with sketching the Amul ads, who rejected the trend of using celebrities in advertisement campaigns. Dabholkar credited chairman Varghese Kurien with creating a free atmosphere that fostered the development of the ads.
Despite encountering political pressure on several occasions, daCunha's agency has made it a policy of not backing down. Some of the more controversial Amul ads include one commenting on Naxalite uprising in West Bengal, on the Indian Airlines employees strike, and the one depicting the Amul butter girl wearing a Gandhi cap
In popular culture
The establishment of Amul is also known as White Revolution. The White Revolution of India inspired the notable Indian film-maker Shyam Benegal to base his film Manthan (1976) on it. The film starred Smita Patil, Girish Karnad, Naseeruddin Shah and Amrish Puri. The film itself was financed by over five lakh rural farmers in Gujarat who contributed Rs 2 each to the film'š budget. Upon its release, these same farmers went in truckloads to watch 'their' film, making it a commercial success., the film was chosen for the 1977 National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi. The Amul success story is taken up as a case study in marketing in many premier management institutes across the world.
The White Revolution ushered an era of plenty from a measly amount of milk production and distribution. Aside from the great measurable success that this project was, it also demonstrated the power of "collective might". A small set of poor farmers of Kheda district in Gujarat had the vision and foresight to act in a way that was good for the society and not for the self alone.
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